What Led to The Development of Polyester?

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The person who developed the science of man-made polymers was Wallace Carothers. He was born in Iowa and studied science while teaching accounting as an undergraduate at Tarkio College in Missouri. Because of his extreme gifting in chemistry he became the head of the chemistry department while he was still an undergraduate student. The reason for his appointment was that WW1 had taken most of the men including qualified teachers which created a shortage of personnel. Wallace went on to earn his master’s degree and PHD from the University of Illinois. From there Wallace went on to become a professor at Harvard University. This is where Wallace began his research into the chemical structures of polymers.

Wallace Carothers left Harvard University and went to work for DuPont Chemical Company in 1920 as the head of their research division. Wallace and his team were the first to research the acetylene family of chemicals. Before that research there was very little knowledge of polymer molecules. Then in 1928 DuPont Chemical Company started a research laboratory dedicated to the development of artificial materials. This was not the path most companies would choose to follow at that time. They had a lot of faith in Wallace and his team.

In 1934 Wallace and his team had made great strides toward creating a synthetic silk when they combined the chemicals Amine, Hex methylene Diamine and Adipic Acid to create the new fiber that was formed by the process of polymerizing also known as condensation reaction. In this Miracle Sheets process the individual molecules would join with water as a byproduct. Wallace and his team refined the process by adjusting their equipment to remove the water by distilling it and that process made the fibers stronger.

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In April 1930 a lab assistant was working with esters-compounds discovered a very strong polymer that could be drawn into a fiber. This fiber had a low melting point and was the beginning and the end of the polyester discovery till 1939. Carothers made a decision to go in a different direction and set that discovery aside. Carothers began experimenting with Amides that were derived from ammonia. In 1935 Wallace discovered a strong polyamide fiber that could stand up well to both heat and solvents. He evaluated over one hundred different polyamides before deciding on the one for development. This polyamide would be called Nylon. In 1935 DuPont had patented this new fiber nylon and introduced it to the world as the miracle fiber in 1938. In 1939 DuPont built a full-scale nylon plant and began to commercially produce this material towards the end of that year. This was all due to the research of Dr. Wallace Carothers and his team in the early 1930’s. The plant was located in Seaford, Delaware.

In 1936 Wallace married a fellow employee by the name of Helen Sweetman. They had one child, a daughter. Tragically Wallace never got to see his daughter born because he committed suicide in April of 1937. It was assumed that Wallace Carothers was a severe manic-depressive and the death of his sister in 1937 contributed to his condition. Julian Hill a fellow researcher at DuPont had noticed that Wallace would carry what turned out to be a vile of cyanide. Hill had stated that Wallace Carothers could list from memory all the famous chemists that had committed suicide, and Carothers name could now be added to that list.

In 1939 a group of British scientists following Wallace Carothers experiments started to develop Polyester. These scientists: J.R.Whinfield, W.K.Birthwhistle, J.T.Dickson and C.G.Ritchie took up where Carothers left off in the discovery of polyester. They created the first polyester fiber and called it Terylene in 1941. DuPont purchased all legal rights in 1946 from these British scientists and from that discovery developed another polyester fiber that they called Dacron.

So how do I get rid of back acne fast? A question that many people, like yourself, ask everyday. They search the websites in hopes that something will finally work for them. I use to be one of them. I’m not going to present some miracle cure, or anything of the like. I simply want to share a couple tips that I’ve used and have seen great results from. These are really easy tips to follow, and you’ll see the results sooner than you’d expect. So let’s get started.

1.) Your going to need a cleanser with something called Benzoyl Peroxide (otherwise known as BP). Preferably with BP as an active ingredient, 10%. This can be found in most acne medications at almost any of your local stores that sell acne products.

When your taking a shower, either with your hand or soft scrubber, apply BP on to the affected areas on your back, shoulders, and back of neck. Let this sit for 2 to 5 minutes before rinsing off. This is so the cleanser can do its work and get deep down into the pores and rid the acne.

You should do this twice daily, once in the morning and again at the end of the day. Thankfully its a really easy practice to incorporate into your shower time. I’ve never had problems with my back drying out, but if you have more sensitive skin, there are a couple things you can do. First, you could try Benzoyl Peroxide with a lesser amount of active ingredient.

2.) Change your bed sheets, often. You’d be amazed at how much gunk can get on to your bed. Oil from your body, dirt that you’ve gathered throughout the day, accumulated dust, and other bacterias that are just waiting for you to lie down. I noticed my back acne going away after the first week of being diligent about keeping my sheets clean. You don’t have to go crazy about this, just make sure to change your bedding at least once or twice a week.

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